PROPAGANDA®® Techniques

Section A
Techniques of Self-Deception

  1. Prejudice
  2. Academic Detachment
  3. Drawing the Line
  4. Not Drawing the Line
  5. Conservatism, Radicalism, Moderatism
  6. Rationalization
  7. Wishful Thinking
  8. Tabloid Thinking
  9. Causal Oversimplication
10. Inconceivability

Section B
Techniques of Language

  1. Emotional Terms
  2. Metaphor and Simile
  3. Emphasis
  4. Quotation Out of Context
  5. Abstract Terms
  6. Vagueness
  7. Ambiguity
  8. Shift of Meaning

Section C
Techniques of Irrelevance

  1. Appearance
  2. Manner
  3. Degrees and Titles
  4. Numbers
  5. Status
  6. Repetition
  7. Slogans
  8. Technical Jargon
  9. Sophistical Formula

Section D
Techniques of Exploitation

  1. Appeal to Pity
  2. Appeal to Flattery
  3. Appeal to Ridicule
  4. Appeal to Prestige
  5. Appeal to Prejudice
  6. Bargain Appeal
  7. Folksy Appeal
  8. Join the Bandwagon Appeal
  9. Appeal to Practical Consequences
10. Passing from the Acceptable to the Dubious

Section E
Techniques of Form

  1. Concurrency
  2. Post Hoc
  3. Selected Instances
  4. Hasty Generalization
  5. Faulty Analogy
  6. Composition
  7. Division
  8. Non Sequitur

Section F
Techniques of Maneuver

  1. Diversion
  2. Disproving a Minor Point
  3. Ad Hominem
  4. Appeal to Ignorance
  5. Leading Question
  6. Complex Question
  7. Inconsequent Argument
  8. Attacking a Straw Man
  9. Victory by Definition
10. Begging the Question

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